When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to set foot on the moon in July 1969, no one could’ve predicted that we would one day be having serious conversations about not only visiting another planet, but actually populating it. As technology and engineering continue to advance, we have started to see the possibility of perhaps forming a colony on Mars, but there are a variety of factors which need to be addressed first such as how sustainable it really is. Here is what it will take to live on Mars.
With the increased seriousness of climate change and the amount of carbon emissions that we are putting into the air, it’s become imperative to create alternative, renewable forms of energy production that both meet our power needs and are not harmful to the environment.
Many countries are starting their own projects that will not only meet those two criteria, but ensure a safer future for all.
For hundreds of years engineers have been working on medical projects that are designed to make our lives easier and healthier. These life saving ideas came to be after much research, and they continue to change our lives in so many ways.
Quantum computing has been a phrase that’s been working its way around the science world for the last few years. The basic idea behind a quantum computer is to create a machine that is capable of calculating processes many times faster and more efficiently than even the most advanced computers we currently have.
Quantum computing fully realised would change the world of technology as we know it. Not only would online security be completely revolutionised, but it’s the hope of many that quantum computers would be able to help many of the problems that we’re facing today, but could also make its way into other industries, such as retail, video games, and online slots Australia.
These are the companies that are currently working on the technology.
Intel is the world-leader in the creation of CPU units, so it makes sense that the tech giant would be working on quantum technology of their own. Tangle Lake is their latest effort to try and break into the field, and they hope to release a device that can processes up to 49 qubits at a time.
The Tangle Lake test chip was first revealed during 2018’s CES, and consisted of a 3×3 inch chip that featured 108 gold radio frequency connectors, each able to carry microwave signals from each of its qubits.
Despite the advancement, the Tangle Lake project has a long way to go, and they estimate that it will need to produce a few hundred thousand qubits in order to become a true quantum computer.
IBM has always been ahead in the field when it comes to creating new technologies, and the engineers at IBM have long working hard on creating a commercially viable quantum system that they hope to release to the public.
Their latest release comes in the form of the Q System One, a system that the company hopes will become more popular as scientists, researchers, and businessmen seek more powerful computing solutions.
The machine itself lives in one of IBM’s research centres, and its computational power will be made available through the cloud.
Microsoft’s foray into the world of quantum tech sees them at a distinct advantage over most of its competitors thanks to its rank as the most valuable company in the world. The researchers at Microsoft are looking to make their version of the quantum computer truly scalable, hoping to give a much larger audience access to the tech.
Their machine makes use of ground state degeneracy and electron fractionalisation, meaning that they split an electron in half and utilising two ground states, which makes the computer far less vulnerable to quantum noise.
The Internet giant hasn’t been left out of the race, and their most notable addition to the quantum race is their Bristlecone, a 72-qubit gate-based superconductive chop that was released by the company’s AI Quantum laboratory.
Bristlecone is being designed to act as a proof-of-concept for future projects,, and they will use it to test hardware, software, and algorithms.
Engineering is an extremely expansive subject, and there are many different types of engineering to choose from. This can be a bit of a problem for those that are trying to choose what type of engineering to begin studying.
Almost all kinds of engineering involve solving problems, creating solutions to those problems, and then putting the solutions into practice.
For those that are looking to break into the engineering world for the first time, these are the top branches of the subject that are popular right now.
This branch deals with the design, construction, testing, research, development, and technology of all things that can fly. It’s a math-intensive form of engineering, and can take a number of years to acquire an adequate degree or certification.
Those that wish to begin studying aerospace engineering will need to be strong in math, physics, and problem solving, and need to have a keen interest in the mechanics of modern flight or space travel.
Computer engineering involves the design, construction, and prototyping of hardware and software computer systems. This is a combination of computer science and electrical engineering, and it’s possible to get into the field by studying one or both of these.
It’s a fascinating branch of study, and sees the engineer enter the world of modern computing, dealing with creating new and powerful systems that may eventually be released into the public domain, such as video games, or online casino Singapore platforms.
Electrical and electronic engineering is concerned with the application of electricity into a number of different ways, such as electrical infrastructure or simple electronic design, support, and repair. It’s a field that has seen growth in recent years as more and more countries seek out qualified electricians and engineers to keep their power grids running smoothly.
Those that wish to get into the world of electrical engineering will need to have an interest in how electricity works, how it can be applied to different systems. Modern electrical engineering puts a lot of focus into creating circuits, such as those used by computers.
Chemistry is an extremely interesting field of study, and deals with chemical and biological processes that are used to create substances and materials.
There are many sub-fields of study in the chemical engineering world, where some engineers might be responsible for creating modern medicines, while others may be involved with the refinement of fuels or the development of new energy sources.
It’s perhaps one of the broadest of the engineering fields, and would be best suited to those that have a strong interest in microbiology, biochemistry, biology, economics, and mathematics.
This type of engineering is directly linked to the buildings and infrastructure that we see around us.
This can be either on a small scale, such as the creation and development of buildings and roads, or on a much larger scale, such as nationwide transportation or water supply networks. Those in this field sometimes undertake architectural studies.
Although there have been multitudes of engineering success stories, there have also been some spectacular failures.
Unlike the online casinos Philippines, not every building is designed to offer the best end result. Take a look at some of the biggest disasters ever to befall the engineering world.
1. Quebec Bridge
The Quebec Bridge was opened to the public in 1887 and was a national intercontinental railway project that spanned the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. But this engineering feat failed not once but twice, and on its first opening to the public it collapsed only 15 seconds later.
A second chance saw it collapse again in 1916 before both the engineers that oversaw it were jailed.
2. Hyatt Regency Hotel Walkway Collapse
In 1981 the Hyatt in Kansas City hosted a tea dance that over 1600 people attended. Sadly, the walkways between the buildings were not spec’ed to hold anywhere near these volumes of people and they collapsed, killing a total of 114 people.
The accident was declared one of the worst in engineering history, as it could have easily been avoided.
3. Lotus Riverside Complex
China is known for its impressive buildings and many of them are sheer feats of engineering ingenuity. But the Lotus Riverside Complex, despite its amazing design, had several fatal flaws and it collapsed in June 2009, with several recorded fatalities.
In the end, blame was aid solely at the feet of the engineers who had moved huge sections of land to accommodate a multi level underground car park, thus destabilising the entire area.
4. Charles de Gaulle Airport Terminal 2E
France’s Charles de Gaulle airport opened its terminal 2E amidst great fanfare in 2004. Sadly, on the same day a huge section of the terminal collapsed and killed 4 people.
Initially, an expert team of engineers couldn’t find any fault with the building, but it later emerged that the roof simply wasn’t strong enough to support the structure, and this had led to its collapse.
Possibly one of the most famous disasters ever, Chernobyl wiped out an entire city and to this day remains a disaster zone.
Bad safety features were blamed for the blast that effectively saw hundreds of thousands of people flee the area, leaving 31 dead and many to suffer the awful after effects of radiation exposure for years to come.
America’s first space station, Skylab launched in 1973, but even at the initial launch many were wary of its design.
Engineers expressed concern over the loss of solar panels and the lack of meteoroid protective shield, and eventually the space station returned to earth, as it never really performed as intended and it cost the program more than $3.5 million just to keep it afloat.
No list of engineering disasters is complete without the Titanic. This infamous ship was said to be sinkable, but the engineers behind it were proved to be fatally wrong. In 1912 the ship hit an iceberg and sank and took over 1500 people down with it.
In the end, an investigation revealed that there was no adequate protection system in place and the ships engineers had greatly over estimated its infallibility.
The world of written literature is very broad indeed, so it stands to reason that even engineering enthusiasts will find a wide selection of books that suit their individual tastes perfectly.
Books are an endless source of knowledge and entertainment as well, and if you want to learn as much as possible about engineering and science, then they should be your go-to guides!
Here are 5 must read books that every engineer should pick up at least once in their lives.
#1: Zero to One – Peter Thiel
This is an essential read on economics, start-ups, business design, and the future of technology. Engineering and the business world are closely interlinked, and this book puts their links into perspective while teaching you how to build your business skills as you build new things.
The book also speaks about productivity, effectiveness and efficiency, shedding light on these topics in a whole new way. Zero to One is all about teaching you how to be effective at business, engineering and science to achieve the best possible results in the field you are passionate about.
#2: Engineer to Win – Caroll Smith
Smith is a foremost expert in the field of racing technology, and she covers a wide range of racing car forms and topics for those who are interested in the mechanical side of things. This book explains and analyses topics like metal fatigue, metallurgy and the general technology of different materials, along with more niche topics like stress relief, heat treatment, aerodynamics, brakes, tools, and ground effects.
Any book written by a legend in the Formula-1 community has got to be worth a read, and this one is particularly succinct and easy to understand. If you are interested in mechanical, aerospace, systems, materials, or Mechatronics engineering, this one is for you.
#3: Set Phasers on Stun – SM Casey
This book was recommended to first-year systems design engineers at Waterloo to give them a good framework for their studies. The gist of the book covers that confusing moment when you have designed something and for some reason, everything starts to go wrong.
In order to correct this, you will need to understand the underlying complexity of what you have designed, and this often means including an interface between the user and the system at hand.
Experts have hailed this is a very important read due to the lasting impression it leaves, especially in terms of the importance of safety and accuracy in the engineering world.
#4: An Astronaut’s Guide to Life — Chris Hadfield
Long-time astronaut and Chief of the ISS Chris Hadfield has managed to take space travel from a reserved science to a public spectacle that has changed the face of astronomy forever. His novel is packed with insights on happiness, determination and commitment, as well as what it takes to be an astronaut, both among the stars and back on home terrain.
It might not be a factual tome packed with engineering information, but An Astronaut’s Guide to Life touches on the more emotional side of the craft, especially for those whose jobs entail space travel, plenty of risk, and a distinct lack of online slots Singapore fun.
#5: The Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman
This classic engineering book has been through a number of editions to date, as people just can’t get enough of its amazing array of information. It focuses on the design process, but also on ergonomics, people, and the way we use everyday objects.
This book might just change the way you think about the products you use on a daily basis, and also about your part in creating new products for others to use and enjoy.
Human beings have a distinct love of taking what they’ve created on paper and making it a physical reality. This is especially true when it comes to the large, international engineering projects that we’re currently working on around the world.
Many of these are being built for the benefit of mankind as a whole, hoping to provide a number of advantages to the many millions that will prosper once these projects have been completed.
1. Gotthard Base Tunnel
The Gotthard Base Tunnel, which was technically completed in 2016 but is till being worked on, is a series of the biggest underground tunnels of all time that have been created to connect Switzerland and Italy.
Drilled underneath the Alps, the tunnel was created to reduce travel times between Zurich and Milan while also cutting down on the amount of commercial and passenger traffic that has been clogging up the mountain highways above ground. More than 2500 works spent a total of 14 years to connect the tunnels from end to end.
2. The Three Gorges Dam
China, having both a massive industry and a massive population, quickly found that their power consumption was too high for conventional means of power production.
Thus began the Three Gorges Dam project, which is the world’s largest hydro-power dam, reaching more than 1.3 miles wide, and consisting of 32 turbines that are able to generate as much electricity as 18 nuclear power stations.
It’s been built to resist a 7.0 magnitude earthquake, and can allow 10000-ton ocean frigates to sail from the interior of China to the open sea.
3. The Marmary Project
As one of the largest transportation projects in the world, there are four main components that make up the Marmary Project.
It consists of a 13.6 kilometre tunnel that will be spanning underneath Istanbul and the Bosporus Straits to connect Asia to Europe that will feature a modern train system that will see passengers travelling beneath the ocean once the tunnel has been fully completed.
This will allow passengers to travel in luxury while they commute to work and enjoy online pokies Australia or the latest TV series in comfort..
4. Andasol Solar Plant
The Andasol Solar Plant is the world’s very biggest solar power station, and can be found in Andalusia, Southern Spain. The plant is made up of over 600,000 solar panels that are spread over 126 acres of open land.
They use massive tanks of molten sand to store the energy that the panels produce over the day, converting the solar radiation into heat energy.
The power station is currently providing power to over 450,000 residents of Spain, making it one of the most environmentally friendly power stations globally, and the blueprint for many in the future.
5. Masdar City
Masdar City is set to be the world’s first zero carbon city, and is being constructed in Abu Dhabi.
The city will ban all automobiles, and will instead rely on mass public transport running completely on renewable energy, with the biggest solar farm in the middle east supplying the city’s energy needs.
The work of today’s civil engineers would be a lot more challenging were it not for the forefathers of civil engineering whose innovations changed the world forever.
Through their discovery and clarification of even the most fundamental principles of the practise, these now world famous civil engineers made incredible contributions to the Industrial Revolution and beyond.
Known as the “Father of Civil Engineering”, John Smeaton was born in Leeds in 1724 and after a short career in law, became a maker of mathematical tools.
Through his pioneering work on the mechanics of watermills and windmills, Smeaton applied both his theoretical and practical knowledge in order to greatly increase the efficiency of watermills, thereby accelerating the early Industrial Revolution.
Responsible for an array projects including canals, bridges, mills, and harbours Smeaton’s work is still studied by engineering students today.
John A. Roebling
Born in 1806 in Prussia, John August Roebling attended the Royal Building Academy in Berlin where he studied engineering and architecture and where he first became interested in the challenges of the suspension bridge.
His requests to build a suspension bridge were declined for many years and he moved to America in 1837 where he became the one of the founding fathers of Saxonburg, Pennsylvania. Beginning his career with the Pennsylvania Canal System, Roebling’s dream finally became a reality in 1844 when he built a suspension bridge in Pittsburgh and became America’s leading expert on suspension bridges.
Born in 1832 in Dijon approximately 200 years after bets for horse racing became popular, Frenchman Alexander Gustave Eiffel is certainly most well-known for the 300m tower in Paris which bears his name.
While the now iconic Eiffel Tower was only ever meant to be a temporary structure, Gustave Eiffel was throughout his career more well-known for his innovative ironwork bridges, cast iron, and railway stations. Eiffel also travelled to far flung countries for projects and his most well-known work before the construction of the Eiffel Tower was the observatory at Nice which was completed in 1886.
Known as the “Father of Iron Bridge Building”, Squire Whipple was born in in Hardwick Massachusetts and graduated from the private Union College in New York. He quickly became known as a highly skilled bridge builder and he is particularly celebrated for the bowstring arch truss design which he patented in 1841.
Several of Squire’s bridges are still in existence today, many of which are still in use, and a particularly beautiful example can be found in Albany, New York.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Considered to be one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in the history of engineering, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born in 1806 in Portsmouth, England and became one of the greatest contributors to the Industrial Revolution.
Brunel is best known for his work on the Great Western Railway which was completed in 1838 and connected London with the Midlands and most of Wales and his bridges and tunnels could be found all over Great Britain.
While modern engineering has certainly created some of the world’s most impressive structures, there have been many incredible feats of engineering throughout history which were once deemed impossible.
Not only impressive in terms of achievement, but these 6 structures also solved the riddle of some of modern day life’s most complex challenges. Fulfilling needs and implementing audacious measures, these famous engineering projects changed the world forever.
Constructed between 1863 and 1869 and first known as the Pacific Railroad and later the Overland Route, the First Transcontinental Railroad was a 3,077km continuous railroad which connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network with the Pacific Coast on San Francisco Bay.
Revolutionising the settlement and economy of the American West, the Transcontinental Railroad made transporting good and passengers from coast to coast much faster and considerably less expensive.
In order to create the Hoover Dam, the Colorado River had to be diverted through an almost 5,000m series of tunnels, 17m in diameter, dug inside the canyon walls. Once the diversion had taken place, engineers had to create a structure strong enough to sustain future generations and keep the mighty Colorado River under control.
Upon its completion in 1935, the Hoover Dam – standing at 221m tall – was the world’s largest concrete structure and the foremost electricity producing facility.
The longest tunnel with an undersea section in the world, the Channel Tunnel is a 50.45km rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover – an area populated with online blackjack lovers – which connects Kent, England to Pas-de-Calais, Northern France.
Bored through chalk marl stratum, the structure consists of three separate tunnels connected by cross-passage links and took 6 years to construct. The tunnel is used to transport passengers, vehicles, and goods and is one the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.
Spanning the Tarn river valley near Millau in Southern France, the Millau Viaduct is currently the tallest vehicular cable-stayed road bridge in the world. Standing at 343m, the Millau Viaduct is almost 20m taller than the Eiffel Tower and was opened in December 2004.
Designed by Michel Virlogeux, a structural engineer, and Norman Foster, an architect, the viaduct took 3 years to construct at a cost of approximately €394 million.
Owing to its height and location, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai was created with the windy terrain and projected human demands on the building in mind.
Currently the tallest building in the world, the Burj Dubai stands at 829.8m tall and was built as the centrepiece of mixed-use development which includes homes, hotel, and parks.
Prior to the opening of the Panama Canal in August 1914, a ship sailing from New York to San Francisco would have to sail around Cape Horn, at the tip of South America, which meant the journey took 67 days in total.
Upon the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, the 82km waterway provided a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which significantly improved the conditions maritime trade.